Pangolins is a species that is classified as rare because it is rarely found. In fact, even in zoos, these animals are rarely found.
Pangolins, also referred to as scaly ant-eaters, according to Wikipedia are mammals of the order Pholidota. One family that still exists, Manidae, has three genera, Manis consisting of four species that live in Asia, Phataginus which consists of two species living in Africa, and Smutsia which consists of two species also live in Africa.
Pangolin (Manis javanica) is a type of mammal that is included in the list of protected species in Indonesia and is listed on Appendix II CITES (IUCN, 2008). Pangolin is one of the animals believed to be an antidote for certain diseases by the people of China, especially scales and meat. Some believe that pangolin can be used as a strong medicine and food for people in rural or rural areas in East Kalimantan.
According to Ami Brautigam and friends, in a study entitled “Recent information on the status and utilization of African Pangolins”, Traffic Bull 15: 15–22 (1994), the current condition of the natural pangolins population is under very high threat. The high level of trade, especially for the trade in scales and meat is a major factor decreasing population, especially populations from Indonesia. A serious threat to the survival of pangolins is the activities of humans who exploit these animals until the population continues to decline.
Anteater Conservation Efforts
Pangolin is one of the animals that is very vulnerable to the threat of extinction. Anteater is an animal that is easily hunted because if it gets dangerous, it rolls up its body like a ball and makes it easy for illegal hunters to catch it.
In addition, as a climbing animal, traps in the form of climbing spots are easily made and pangolins can be easily trapped in that place. If outside their natural habitat or in captivity, pangolins are difficult to adapt. In addition, these animals are also difficult to reproduce and breed in captivity.
The research team from the Management and Ecology Division of the Wildlife Department of the Department of Forest Resources and Ecotourism at the Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, examined pangolin behavior and possible captive breeding. Pangolin is believed by many people as food and medicine that has high economic value, so the demand for pangolins tends to increase.
Illegal harvesting from natural habitats is a way that is always used to supply demand, and this affects significantly reduced wild populations. The captive breeding program in the ex-situ area is the best alternative solution to support demand sustainability and conservation in natural habitats.
Based on research conducted on animal behavior and implementation of several captive breeding programs, the breeding captive program of pangolins shows success.